Grotesque behaviorism

One of the earliest medical records of the power of placebo was in 1794, when an Italian doctor named Gerbi discovered a strange thing: an insect secretion was applied to painful teeth to relieve pain, which lasted for a year.

One of the earliest medical records of the power of placebo was in 1794, when an Italian doctor named Gerbi discovered a strange thing: an insect secretion was applied to painful teeth to relieve pain, which lasted for a year. Gerbi continued to administer the insect secretions to patients with toothache and kept a very detailed record of their reactions. Sixty-eight percent of the patients who applied the "medicine" told him that their teeth had not hurt again within a year. We don't have a more detailed profile of Jerry than the doctor and the insect secretions, but we are fairly certain that the insect secretions he uses are not related to toothache treatment. But the problem is that Gerby believes it works, and so do most of his patients. Of course, the placebos on the market aren't just Dr. Jerby's insect secretions. Before modern times, almost all medicines were placebos. Toad eyes, bat wings, dried fox lungs, mercury, mineral water, cocaine, electric shock machines: all were sold as a panacea. As Lincoln lay dying across the street from Ford's Theater, his doctor was said to have applied a "mummy's paste" to his wounds-a paste made by grinding Egyptian mummies into powder, which was said to cure epilepsy, abscesses, rashes, fractures, paralysis, migraines, ulcers, and various other diseases and injuries. Even in 1908, "authentic Egyptian mummies" were printed in e? Merck's sales samples are available for order. It may still be used in some parts of the world to this day. Mummy powder isn't really the scariest medicine. In the 17th century, there was a prescription for "curing all diseases", which was written as follows: "The body of a newly dead man with red hair, who was not injured before death, had no skin damage, was 24 years old, and died within one day. It is better to hang, wheel or stake the dead." Leave in daylight and moonlight for a day and a night, then cut into slices or thick strips. Sprinkle a little myrrh and aloe vera powder on it to reduce the bitter taste. We may think that we are very different from the people at that time, but we are not. Comfort therapy still works its magic for us. For example, beam impact tubes ,side impact door beams, for years, doctors resorted to removing abdominal scar tissue on the belief that doing so would eliminate chronic abdominal pain — until researchers did a simulated operation under strict control, and patients also responded that the pain was gone. Encainide, flecainide, and mexiletine, all off-label drugs often prescribed to patients with irregular heartbeats, have recently been found to cause cardiac arrest. Researchers tested the effectiveness of six of the most commonly used antidepressants and found that 75% of them could be replaced by placebo to achieve the same effect. The same is true of brain surgery to treat Parkinson's disease. Doctors drilled holes in the skulls of several patients, but not all of them, to test their efficacy. It turned out that patients who received sham surgery had the same effect as those who received real surgery. There are many more such cases. It may be argued that these modern medical treatments and drugs were developed with the best of intentions. That's true. But in the past, people used Egyptian mummy powder to a large extent. In some cases, mummy powder was as effective as, or at least as effective as, any other drug at the time. Placebo therapy works by the power of suggestion, and it works because people trust. As soon as you see the doctor, you'll feel better. Take a pill and you'll feel better. You will feel better if the doctor is a famous expert, or if you swallow some famous medicine with great curative effect. But how does suggestion affect us? In general, there are two mechanisms that shape the expectations that placebo and placebo will work. One is faith — our trust or confidence in a drug, a procedure, or the people involved. Sometimes, as long as the doctor or nurse comes to us to comfort and encourage us, it will not only make us feel better mentally, but also really activate the healing function in our body. Merely seeing a doctor show enthusiasm for a certain treatment plan or operation may cause the patient to have some beneficial effect without treatment. The second mechanism is conditioning. Like Pavlov's famous conditioning experiment (dogs drool at the sound of a bell), an expectation can be built up in people through repeated experience. If you order a pizza over the phone, your digestive juices will start to flow as soon as the delivery boy rings the doorbell before you can smell the pizza. Or maybe you're on your honeymoon, snuggling up on the couch with your new wife. You watch the crackling fire in the fireplace, and the desire for love in your ears and temples triggers the release of endorphins in your brain, paving the way for your next intimacy, pushing your happiness to the depths of love and gentle countryside. With regard to pain, good anticipation releases hormones and neurotransmitters such as endorphins and tranquilizers, which not only suppress pain, but also produce intense pleasure (endorphins activate receptors similar to cocaine). For example, I clearly remember lying in the burn ward in unbearable pain, but as soon as I saw the nurse coming, the needle of the syringe in her hand was still dripping with painkillers, I would breathe a long sigh of relief that the painkillers had finally arrived! My brain immediately began to release pain-suppressing opioid peptides, even though the needle had not yet penetrated my skin. Is nature good or evil? Why aren't we honest? Is American integrity slipping? If we entice honest people to cheat or steal,aluminium coated tubes, will they do it? If you were given a chance, would you cheat in the exam? What is the benefit of stealing a towel from a hotel room versus the cost of getting caught? Can dishonesty be eliminated with the Bible? Does a commitment to ethics guarantee honesty? A better way to correct dishonesty Enforce honest external measures. That's all. It may work in some cases, but not in others. Is there a better way to correct dishonesty? Experiment.


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